How many layers a printed circuit board should have is one of the crucial choices to be made while designing it.
Although 2 layer and 4 layer PCBs are popular options, deciding between the two might be difficult.
In this blog post, we’ll compare 2 layer vs. 4 layer PCBs and highlight the benefits and drawbacks of each. This will help you decide which is best for your project.
Knowing the Basic Fundamentals of PCBs
It’s crucial to comprehend the principles of PCBs before delving into the variations between 2 layer and 4 layer PCBs.
Most modern electronics are built on PCBs with various parts, each with a specific function.
Some components include the substrate, copper layers, soldermask, and silkscreen. For effective PCB design and manufacture, it is essential to comprehend the purpose and significance of each of these components.
In addition, being familiar with the various types of PCBs, such as single-sided, double-sided, and multilayer, can help determine the most appropriate design for a specific application.
Printed Circuit Board
How do PCB Layers Affect your PCB?
A printed circuit board’s performance and usefulness can be considerably impacted by the number of layers in the board.
The layers in a PCB are like a series of interconnected highways that allow signals and power to travel throughout the board.
The more layers a PCB has, the more highways it has for routing signals and power.
2 Layer vs. 4 Layer PCB Characteristics
2 layer and 4 layer PCB have characteristics that may apply to your electronic design. This comparison will help you decide which one may be the best to use.
2 Layer vs. 4 Layer
2 Layer PCB
A printed circuit board having two layers of conductive material separated by a layer of insulating material—commonly referred to as the substrate or core layer—is referred to as a two layer PCB stack up.
The conductive layers are typically copper, while the insulating layer is made of materials like FR4 or polyimide.
The two conductive layers allow for the routing of signals and power through the board. In contrast, the insulating layer is a barrier to prevent unwanted electrical interference between the layers.
The design of a two-layer PCB involves placing components and traces on both sides of the board to maximize efficiency and minimize signal interference.
The first layer is typically the bottom layer, which contains the majority of the ground planes and power planes. In contrast, the second layer is the top layer, which includes most signal traces and components.
The layers are connected through vias, allowing signals to pass through the board from one layer to another.
The functionality of a 2 layer PCB and a 4 layer PCB is fundamentally similar, as both types of PCBs serve as a platform for electronic components to be interconnected and perform a specific function.
2 layer PCB is usually applied if the electronic device needs to remove propagation delays. It also is used in the application that avoids problems when using microstrip traces in a ground plane.
A 2 layer PCB often costs less to manufacture than a 4 layer PCB, largely because of the simpler design and fewer layers of conductive material. 2 layer PCBs have reduced production costs since they use less material and have a simpler manufacturing process.
2 layer PCBs have a shorter lead time than 4 layer PCBs due to their more straightforward design and manufacturing process.
2 layer PCBs typically require fewer processing steps and less complex drilling and lamination processes, resulting in a shorter production time.
Furthermore, many PCB producers have separate production lines for 2 layer PCBs, allowing for quicker turnaround times.
2 Layer PCB Stackup
4 Layer PCB
This PCB allows for a more intricate stack-up, containing two more internal conducting material layers.
A 4 layer PCB’s stack-up generally consists of two internal layers for extra routing, power planes, or ground planes, a top layer for signal traces and components, a bottom layer for ground and power planes, and a third layer for ground and power planes.
Additional layers can improve signal integrity, lower electromagnetic interference, and enable more intricate circuit designs.
Nevertheless, 4 layer PCBs may be more difficult to create, repair, and troubleshoot due to the increased complexity of the stack-up.
With a 4 layer PCB, the components are arranged, the traces are routed on the top and bottom layers, and the inside layers are used to allocate power and ground planes.
The additional internal layers provide more routing space. Its design reduces the risk of electromagnetic interference, resulting in improved signal integrity.
The design process is more complex, requiring additional attention to the layer stack-up and power distribution, and may require experience.
A 4 layer PCB has two additional internal layers of conductive material, which can be used for ground and power planes and routing signal traces.
This extra layer enables a 4 layer PCB to have better signal integrity, power distribution, and reduced electromagnetic interference compared to a 2 layer PCB.
Because to the extra room for routing traces and components, a 4 layer PCB may enable circuit designs that are more intricate and dense.
A 4 layer PCB requires additional layers of conductive material, increasing the overall material cost and the manufacturing process’s complexity.
Thus, 4 layer PCBs often cost more than 2 layer PCBs.
Nevertheless, the price of both PCBs can vary significantly based on the particular design specifications, the required quantity, the board’s size, and the manufacturing process’s complexity.
Lead times for 4 layer PCBs can vary widely depending on the specific design requirements, the quantity needed, and the complexity of the manufacturing process. These PCBs could occasionally need unique materials or manufacturing techniques, which would lengthen the lead time.
4 Layer PCB Stackup
Pros and Cons of 2 Layer PCB
Using a 2 layer PCB depends on the specific requirements of the circuit and the desired level of performance, as well as the cost, time, and expertise available for the project.
Here are 2 Layer PCB’s advantages and disadvantages:
1. Available in Higher Volume Production
Since 2 layer PCBs are simpler and have fewer layers, they are easier and quicker to produce, which makes them a cost-effective option for mass production.
The simpler design also means fewer components, which can further reduce production costs.
2. Shorter Lead Times
Another advantage of 2 layer PCBs is their shorter lead times.
Since the design and production process is less complex, it takes less time to design and manufacture 2 layer PCBs than more complex ones such as 4 layer PCBs.
This can be advantageous when time is a critical factor in the project or when a quick turnaround is needed for prototypes or small-scale productions.
The simplicity of 2 layer PCBs is another advantage. The design process is simpler, making manufacturing, repairing, and troubleshooting easier.
The simplicity of the design also makes it more accessible to hobbyists and those with limited experience in PCB design.
The simplicity of the design can also reduce the project’s overall cost, as it requires less expensive materials and equipment to manufacture.
1. Low Operating Capacity
Due to their simpler design, 2 layer PCBs may not be suitable for complex circuit designs or high-frequency applications that require better performance.
This can result in circuit functionality limitations or reduced performance compared to more complex PCBs.
2. Slower Speed
Another disadvantage of 2 layer PCBs is their slower speed.
Since 2 layer PCBs have limited routing space, they may need help to accommodate complex routing requirements, which can limit the speed of the circuit.
This can be a disadvantage for high-speed applications requiring faster data transfer.
3. Larger Size and Higher Weight
2 layer PCBs may also have a larger size and higher weight than more complex ones.
Since 2 layer PCBs have limited routing space, they may require larger components or larger board sizes, which can increase the overall size and weight of the PCB.
This can be a disadvantage in applications where size and weight are critical factors.
2 Layer PCB
Pros and Cons of 4 Layer PCB
With additional layers, you can achieve greater complexity and signal integrity.
When selecting whether or not a 4 layer PCB is the best option for your project, it’s critical to consider its features.
1. Higher Operating Capacity
One of the main advantages of 4 layer PCBs is their higher operating capacity.
With four layers, creating more complex and sophisticated circuit designs is possible, enabling greater functionality and higher performance.
The additional layers also provide more space for power and ground planes, which can help reduce noise and improve signal integrity.
2. Won’t Emit Too Much Radiation
Another advantage of 4 layer PCBs is their ability to minimize electromagnetic radiation.
The additional layers can create shielding or ground planes, which can help prevent electromagnetic radiation from escaping the PCB.
This can be particularly important in sensitive applications, such as medical or military devices, where electromagnetic interference can be a major concern.
3. Defiant of Interference
Compared to 2-layer PCBs, 4 layer PCBs are more interference-resistant.
More layers make it possible to create more complex routing designs less susceptible to noise and interference.
This can be important for high-frequency applications or environments with much electromagnetic interference.
4. Enables Switched-Mode PSU
4 layer PCBs also allow switching-mode power supply units (PSUs).
This PCB may contain the more intricate circuitry and control components needed for switched-mode PSUs.
This can reduce the size and cost of the PSU while improving its efficiency and performance.
1. More Expensive
The greater price of 4 layer PCBs compared to 2 layer PCBs is one of its key drawbacks.
Extra layers need more materials and manufacturing techniques, which may raise the PCB’s total cost.
This can be significant, especially for low-volume production runs or hobbyist projects.
2. More Complicated Production and Design
Creating a well-organized and efficient layout becomes more challenging with more layers.
The additional layers can also require more complex routing, which can be time-consuming and challenging.
This can result in longer lead times and higher production costs.
Additionally, the additional layers can make it more difficult to troubleshoot and repair the PCB in case of issues.
4 Layer PCB
Factors to Take into Account While Selecting a 2 Layer vs. 4 Layer PCB
The choice between a 2 layer and 4 layer PCB must consider several factors.
The complexity of the circuit design should be evaluated. If the circuit design is relatively simple, a 2 layer PCB may be sufficient.
A 4 layer PCB, however, can be required if the design calls for additional components or a larger working capacity.
Circuit density refers to the number of components and traces per unit area on a printed circuit board. Circuit density is important when choosing between a 2 layer and 4 layer PCB.
If the circuit design requires a high density of components and traces, a 4 layer PCB may be necessary to provide additional routing layers and reduce the complexity of the layout.
2 layer PCBs are generally less expensive compared to 4 layer PCBs due to their simpler design and production processes.
A 4 ayer PCB could be required despite its greater cost if the circuit design calls for additional layers for better performance.
Turnaround time is important when choosing between a 2 layer and 4 layer PCB.
2 layer PCBs generally have shorter turnaround times due to their simpler design and manufacturing processes.
If the circuit design requires a 4 layer PCB, it may take longer to manufacture and assemble due to the additional layers and more complex manufacturing processes.
Durability of PCB
4 layer PCBs are generally more durable than 2 layer PCBs due to the additional layers and the ability to provide more robust protection against environmental factors such as humidity, temperature fluctuations, and vibration.
Additionally, 4 layer PCBs can provide better signal integrity due to their lower impedance and improved EMI/EMC performance.
However, a 2 layer PCB may be sufficient and more durable for the intended application if the circuit design requires a lower density of components and traces.
4 layer PCBs are ideal for designs that require high-density components and traces, enabling more complex circuitry and improved signal integrity.
They can also be used to reduce crosstalk between components and provide better power delivery, which can improve circuit performance.
If the circuit design is relatively simple and does not require a high component density, a 2 layer PCB may be sufficient and more cost-effective.
In conclusion, choosing between a 2 layer and 4 layer PCB depends on several factors, including circuit density, cost, turnaround time, durability, and maximizing functionality.
While a 4 layer PCB offers improved performance, better signal integrity, and higher density, it comes at a higher cost and more complex design and production processes.
A 2-layer PCB is less complicated and more affordable. Still, it may not be suitable for complex circuit designs requiring high component density or better signal integrity.
Ultimately, the decision between a 2 layer and 4 layer PCB comes down to the specific requirements of the circuit design and the application’s needs.