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9 Surprising Facts About DC Motors and DC Motor Controller Design Circuit

DC Motor Controller Design circuit 01

How DC Motors Still Have Great Importance in This Era of Modern Technology?

In this latest era of technology, you can easily see that industrial manufacturers are using motor control, especially DC motors everywhere. For example, in the current industrial area, the direct current engines are presents everywhere. Basically, these DC motors are controlled by DC Motor Controller.

The brushed DC motor has the same structure as a DC commutation motor but without the mechanical commutation. The brushed DC motors, due to the mechanical switching system, show numerous problems resulting from the nature of the brushes (soft conductive elements of graphite): the consumption of the brushes which, in addition to producing malfunction due to bad contact, also produces conductive dust (graphite dust ) which deteriorates the functionality of the electronics. 

Furthermore, given the nature of the contact of the rubbing brushes, there is a high production of electric discharges in the air with a high risk of explosion and fire in environments characterized by highly combustible components (gas, plastic, packaging, etc.). Furthermore, electric discharges represent a source of significant electromagnetic emissions that interfere with the control electronics.

 The mechanical contact system of the brushes also involves loss of power and therefore of efficiency of the DC brushless motor. Brushless DC motors were invented to deal with the application problems of brushed DC motors, which were initially faced with the solution of brushed AC motors.

 Since the mechanical switching system serves to achieve the switching of the current flow direction in the rotor windings, the idea that led to the creation of brushless DC motors was to electronically produce the commutation outside the motor and then apply it in a fixed manner to the motor in order to control the direction of torsion in the same way as a mechanical commutator. 

Electronic switching of the motor control current could be performed by electronic circuits. The electronic control solution of the electric motor that led to the creation of brushless DC motors became a viable reality with the advent of integrated electronics which allowed to reduce costs and dimensions of the control electronics and made the production and use of brushless DC motors.

DC Motor Controller Design Circuit 04

Linear Electric Motor

The electric motor typically has a circular rotation, therefore in order to produce linear motion it requires mechanical organs for transforming circular motion into linear motion. An alternative to rotary motors are linear induction motors. The linear motor is an electric motor that unlike the rotary motors, instead of producing torsion, produces a linear force in the direction of its length. 

Integrated Circuits for Motor Control

Being electronic switches, the strong innovative component derived from the high switching frequency up to reach ultrasonic frequencies. The IGBTs now in their third generation represent today the basic functionality of electrical power control devices that are well suited to solving complex motor control problems. 

Silicon Carbide: the Hybrid Solution

Silicon Carbide technology devices (SiC) are part of the wide band gap semiconductors category, characterized by particularly attractive features for the high-power semiconductor category. The use of SiC devices in motor control and electric power control applications is representing a real moment of innovation thanks to features such as energy saving, size reduction, integration and reliability, all issues to which sectors such as automotive and control in industrial automation are particularly sensitive. 

These devices combine the fast technology based on silicon with that of SiC diodes, obtaining a technological solution of a hybrid nature. Infineon has produced a large number of such integrated power devices as part of a family of components called CoolSiC. The increase in the switching frequency leads to important advantages in the construction of motors in relation to the magnetic component. According to a study carried out by Infineon, thanks to the reduction in volume and weight obtained, the system cost is reduced by up to 20%.

Furthermore, you can easily see the uses of DC motors from the motoring of small to medium-sized applications. Among several other motors DC motors are actually best because of their vast ranges of functionality. In fact, DC motors are oldest designs of electric motors.

But they have still their importance even in this era of modern machines. All this has become possible because of their great controllability. Additionally, this ideal benefit of great controllability is the main reason of their persisted.

Today, all over the globe there are almost 40 million DC motors or more than it, has used in many different operations. Moreover, it is a fact that most of us do not even know about the basics of these motors. So, we are here to explain about the basics of DC motors, DC Motor Controller, main types of DC motors and their applications.

DC Motor Controller Design Circuit 03

What is a DC Motor?

Basically, DC stands for Direct Current. Hence, a DC motor is an electric based motor. Furthermore, this motor works with the help of direct current. However, it is a fact that DC motors will not work without the use of PCB boards.

DC motors are electric machines which actually convert the electrical energy into the mechanical energy. In fact, DC motors get electric power via direct current. Furthermore, these motors convert this electric energy into mechanical rotation.

Moreover, speed and output torque totally depend on the both,

  • Design of motor
  • Electrical input.

In addition, the grace and elegance of DC motors have further guided to the production of several DC Motor controllers. Moreover, these controllers are very simple in designs. These designs provide sufficient performance in comparison to their costs.

What are the Main Types of DC Motor?

Basically, there are 4 basic types of DC motors. And these are:

  1. Brushed DC motors
  2. Brushless DC motors
  3. Series DC motors
  4. Shunt DC motors

Who Invented the DC Motor?

As you know that DC motor is an exceptional piece of several electrical devices. This marvelous device has actually introduced great revolution in the lives of people in several different ways. But when we talk about its invention, we found that it was first invented in United States.

Basically, Thomas Davenport was the person who invented the world’s first electrical motor. Furthermore, he was first man who patented the functional electric motor in 1837. It is a fact that Davenport was not the first person to create an electric motor. But he actually patented the extra powerful versions of these electric motors.

In fact, the world’s first practical DC motor was actually invented by Frank Julian Sprague in 1886. Moreover, it was the most significant development which now leading to reshape different applications in the industry.

What is a DC Motor Controller?

DC Motor Controller is a very special kind of an electric device. This special device has ability to transform electric energy into the form of mechanical energy.

Furthermore, DC motors first receive electrical power by making use of direct current. Then this direct current further converts this kind of energy into some kind of automatic rotation. Today, industrial manufacturers are almost using DC motors everywhere.

These motors use magnetic field that has generated with the help of generated current. Moreover, these currents are generally the types of currents which has ability to drive the rotor fixed on the output shaft. The output torque and speed rely on the electrical output and the design of the motor.

DC Motor Controller Design Circuit 02

What are the Types of DC Motor Controller?

Here we are describing you the most common methods to control the DC motor. in fact, all these methods are not extensive and we can control the DC motors in several other ways. but the basic 3 DC Motor Controllers are:

  • Armature Controller: Variable resistance
  • Speed Controller: Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
  • Direction Controller: H Bridge.

How does DC Motor Controller Work?

DC Motor Controllers are different in power and sizes. You can easily see the use of significant mechanisms in order to pull,

  • The elevators and hoists
  • Power vehicles
  • In small toys
  • Industrial fans
  • Pumps and blowers
  • Home appliances
  • Disk drivers and so on.

Let’s talk, how it works.  

When we talk about its working, we see that DC motor contains two most important and essential parts. These are:

  1. A stator
  2. An armature

In fact, the stator is permanent part or component of the engine. On the other hand, the armature is the rotating part of DC Motor Controller. When a DC motor works, the duty of the stator is to provide a special rotating magnetic field which manages the armature to rotate.

So, all these basic operating principles generally allows DC Motor Controllers to change electrical energy from direct current to mechanical energy. This mechanical energy has ability to use for propulsion equipment. And all this is possible due to a rotating movement.

What are the Applications of DC Motor Controller?

The controllers of DC motors are of many kinds as there are several forms and kinds of DC motors. One of the strongest benefits of these controllers is their variability. Moreover, as the DC motors are of several shapes so their controllers and their applications are also countless.

Additionally, the fields of

  • Manufacturing
  • Robotics
  • Automobiles
  • Military applications and so on.

All these fields use DC Motor Controller according to the needs of DC motors. These motor controllers have capability to provide an ideal and good control. Furthermore, their prices are also really acceptable.

DC Motor Controller Design Circuit 05

In addition, the following are just a few specific applications of these motor controllers:

In Consumers Fans:

They are an ideal choice to use in fans because of their energy-efficient mechanism.

For Pumps:

Industrial manufacturers are rapidly using DC motors in order to power pumps. Because of their excellent response while moving and easy variable speeds are necessary.

For Latest Electric Bikes:

Today electric bikes have DC motors. So, DC Motor Controllers have specially found in the hub of the front and back wheel in order to generate the required torque and power levels.

For Modern Electric Cars:

DC motors are best for electric vehicles. Moreover, manufacturers are highly preferring them due to their energy efficiency and durability.

For Kids’ Toys

With a huge variety of voltage, toys which have used DC motor are ideal. Because these toys require different kinds of speed and movement and DC motors have ability to provide all their requirements.

Why You should Choose a DC Motor and DC Motor Controller?

In several conditions, you have the choices to choose between AC and DC motors. But it is a fact that DC motors and DC Motor Controller are first choice. Basically, DC motors have several advantages in comparison to AC motors.

DC motors and their controllers are perfect choice because of their diversity. DC motors and controllers are also an ideal and perfect choice when they require more power from the DC sources of low voltage. For example, a battery or solar panels.

But in the conditions when you want to converse the direction most rapidly, in such conditions, DC motors are ideal for these applications.

Conclusion:

Hence, in this article we have tried to explain about the basics of DC motors and their highly beneficial DC Motor Controller. Moreover, DC motors are highly beneficial in order to control extremely high speeds. These DC motors also have ability to provide high starting torque.

These motors also have capability to provide high precision which have required by an extremely huge range of industry applications. Furthermore, these motor controllers are also free from all the issues and problems which are associated with harmonics.

DC motors and controllers have ability to operate even at very high speeds. And they have high – efficiency design with ideal startup torque.

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