Choosing the ideal surface finish for printed circuit boards is essential for guaranteeing maximum performance and lifespan.
To assist you in choosing the best surface finish for your PCB project, we’ll present a thorough comparison of ENIG vs. HASL in this post.
Brief Description of Surface Finish in PCB
Surface finish is an essential aspect of printed circuit board design, which determines the quality of the electrical connections between components and the board itself.
It refers to the thin layer of material applied to the exposed copper traces on the PCB to protect them from oxidation and other environmental factors.
Surface finish plays a crucial role in the overall performance and reliability of the PCB, as it affects the quality of the solder joint and the ability of the PCB to withstand harsh environments.
Several surface finish options are available, each with unique advantages and disadvantages.
Choosing the right surface finish is critical to ensure the longevity and reliability of the PCB, such as the application, budget, and expected lifecycle of the PCB.
PCB Surface Finish
What is ENIG (Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold)?
Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold is a popular and widely used surface finish, particularly in high-reliability applications such as aerospace, medical devices, and military equipment.
ENIG is a two-layer coating process, with a thin layer of nickel deposited on the copper traces of the PCB using an electroless method, followed by a layer of immersion gold.
The nickel layer provides excellent corrosion resistance and a flat surface for the gold layer to adhere to, while the gold layer provides a protective barrier against oxidation and enhances the solderability of the PCB.
ENIG is known for its flatness, consistency, and excellent electrical properties, making it an ideal choice for PCBs with fine-pitch components and high-density interconnects.
However, ENIG is also relatively expensive compared to other surface finishes, which can be a drawback for some applications.
ENIG (Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold)
What is HASL (Hot Air Solder Leveling)?
It is a relatively simple and cost-effective process that involves coating the exposed copper traces on the PCB with a layer of molten solder, which is then leveled using hot air to create a flat, smooth surface.
The solder layer provides excellent protection against oxidation and enhances the solderability of the PCB, making it easy to attach components to the board.
HASL is popular for various PCB applications, particularly in consumer electronics and other cost-sensitive industries.
However, it has some limitations, including uneven surface coverage, the potential for forming solder bridges between adjacent pads, and the formation of sharp edges on the solder joints, which can lead to reliability issues in some applications.
These limitations have led to alternative surface finishes, such as ENIG, which offer improved performance and reliability in specific applications.
HASL (Hot Air Solder Leveling)
Features and Characteristics of ENIG vs. HASL
Though these surface finishes are both widely used in PCB manufacturing, there are some key features and characteristics of ENIG vs. HASL:
ENIG vs. HASL
1. Even Surface
This surface finish is known for providing a flat and even surface finish to printed circuit boards.
This is due to the electroless deposition process used to deposit a thin layer of nickel onto the copper traces of the PCB, followed by a layer of immersion gold.
The nickel layer provides an even and uniform surface for the gold layer to adhere to, resulting in a consistent and flat surface finish.
2. Preferable in for Fine Pitch or BGA Assembly
The uniform and flat surface ENIG provides ensure that fine-pitch components and BGAs are mounted securely on the PCB and that the solder joints are strong and reliable.
ENIG’s excellent solderability, corrosion resistance, and electrical conductivity also make it an ideal choice for high-reliability applications such as aerospace, medical devices, and military equipment, where consistent and reliable performance is critical.
3. Environmentally Friendly
Unlike other surface finishes such as HASL (Hot Air Solder Leveling), ENIG does not contain hazardous materials such as lead or tin-lead alloys that can harm the environment.
ENIG’s electroless nickel deposition process generates no hazardous waste, and the chemicals used are relatively safe and easy to handle.
4. No Dummy Plating Needed
This surface finish is a process that does not require dummy plating, unlike some other surface finishes used in printed circuit board manufacturing.
Dummy plating is a process used to deposit a thin layer of copper onto the non-copper areas of the PCB to prevent nickel or gold from depositing in those areas.
Using dummy plating adds an extra step to the manufacturing process and can increase the cost of the PCB.
However, with ENIG, the nickel layer deposited on the copper traces of the PCB is self-limiting, which means that it only deposits on the copper areas and not on non-copper areas such as pads or holes.
This eliminates the need for dummy plating and simplifies the manufacturing process, resulting in cost savings and increased efficiency.
5. Gold Wire Bondable
Gold wire bonding is a common method of connecting ICs (integrated circuits) to the PCB, and the reliability of the bond is critical for the overall performance of the PCB.
ENIG’s thin layer of immersion gold provides a reliable and stable surface for gold wire bonding, ensuring strong and consistent bonds that are less likely to fail.
The immersion gold layer is relatively soft compared to other surface finishes, reducing the risk of wire damage during the bonding process.
ENIG’s excellent solderability and electrical conductivity make it the best considering the gold wire bonding procedure.
6. Complies with RoHS
This surface finish complies with RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances) regulations, making it a preferred choice for environmentally conscious printed circuit board manufacturing.
RoHS regulations limit using certain hazardous materials such as lead, mercury, and cadmium in electronic products to protect human health and the environment. ENIG does not contain any restricted materials, making it a safe and environmentally friendly option for PCB manufacturing.
7. May Not Fit Your Budget
It may only fit some people’s budget due to its higher cost than other surface finishes, such as HASL (Hot Air Solder Leveling).
The cost of ENIG is primarily due to the price of gold used in the immersion process.
Although the gold layer used in ENIG is only a few microinches thick, it still adds to the overall cost of the PCB.
The electroless nickel deposition process used in ENIG is more complex and time-consuming than other processes, which can also add to the cost.
8. Difficult to Rework
Reworking can be challenging if changes or repairs are necessary during the assembly process.
Its thin layer of immersion gold makes removing and re-soldering components more difficult than other surface finish such as HASL (Hot Air Solder Leveling) or OSP (Organic Solderability Preservative).
The gold layer may also become brittle after repeated heating and cooling cycles, increasing the risk of cracking or delamination during rework.
The electroless nickel deposition process used in ENIG can make the copper pads beneath the nickel layer more difficult to access, further complicating the rework process.
PCB with ENIG Finish
1. Creates Stronger Solder Joints
HASL creates strong and durable solder joints. The HASL process involves applying a layer of molten solder to the copper pads on the PCB and then leveling the excess solder with hot air, resulting in a smooth and even surface finish.
This process forms a strong metallurgical bond between the solder and the copper pads, providing excellent solderability and long-term reliability.
2. Low Cost
This surface finish is a cost-effective option for printed circuit board manufacturing due to its relatively low cost compared to other surface finishes such as ENIG.
This process does not require expensive materials or equipment, making it a popular choice for high-volume production runs where cost is a significant consideration.
This surface finish is a repairable option for printed circuit board manufacturing, making it a popular choice for prototyping and testing applications.
In case of any issues or defects in the solder joints, the HASL surface finish can be easily reworked or repaired by applying new solder to the affected areas.
It is important to note that repeated repairs or rework can compromise the reliability and performance of the solder joints, so it is essential to consider the tradeoffs between repairability and long-term reliability when selecting a surface finish for PCB manufacturing.
4. Uneven Surface
This surface finish can result in an uneven surface due to the nature of the process.
HASL’s leveling process can sometimes result in an uneven surface finish, with some areas having a thicker solder layer than others.
This uneven surface finish can lead to reliability issues, especially in high-frequency applications or fine-pitch components, where variations in the solder thickness can affect signal integrity and cause electrical noise.
The rough surface finish can make inspecting the solder joints for defects or issues difficult.
As such, HASL may not be ideal for applications where an even surface finish is critical, and other surface finishes, such as ENIG, may be more suitable.
5. May Have Lead and Harsh Chemicals
This process typically uses a solder alloy containing lead, a toxic material that can adversely affect human health and the environment.
The flux used in the HASL process may contain harsh chemicals. This can be hazardous if improperly handled.
6. Poor Wetting
The solder may only sometimes be wet properly to the copper pads, resulting in incomplete or weak solder joints.
This poor wetting can be caused by oxidation of the copper pads or contamination of the solder, which can be difficult to control in the HASL process.
PCB with HASL Finish
Importance of Choosing the Right Surface Finish
The surface finish is the final coating applied to the copper pads on the PCB, and it plays a critical role in the board’s solderability, electrical conductivity, and corrosion resistance.
Different surface finishes have unique characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages that make them suitable for specific applications and environments.
For instance, surface finishes such as ENIG are preferred for applications requiring high reliability and fine-pitch components. At the same time, HASL is a cost-effective option for standard applications with larger component sizes.
Choosing the wrong surface finish can lead to problems such as poor solderability, unreliable solder joints, signal degradation, and corrosion, which can ultimately affect the performance and lifespan of the PCB.
Environmental Impact of ENIG vs. HASL
The environmental impact of ENIG and HASL surface finishes can vary significantly.
ENIG is considered an environmentally friendly surface finish because it does not contain lead or other hazardous substances, and the process generates minimal waste and emissions.
ENIG also complies with RoHS regulations, which restrict the use of certain hazardous substances in electronic products.
On the other hand, HASL surface finish can contain lead and harsh chemicals, which can present environmental and health hazards.
The HASL process generates more waste and emissions than ENIG, and the disposal of the excess solder can be problematic.
In some regions, the use of HASL may be restricted or regulated due to its environmental impact.
Which Surface Finish is Best for High-Frequency PCBs?
ENIG has generally considered the best surface finish for high-frequency printed circuit boards.
ENIG’s thin, uniform gold layer provides excellent electrical conductivity and signal integrity at high frequencies.
ENIG also has a smooth surface finish that reduces signal loss and attenuation, making it ideal for telecommunications, wireless communication, and high-speed data transfer applications.
In contrast, HASL has an uneven surface finish that can cause signal distortion and reflection at high frequencies, which can affect the performance of the PCB.
Therefore, ENIG is the preferred surface finish for high-frequency applications due to its superior electrical properties and signal integrity.
Both ENIG and HASL are popular surface finish options for printed circuit boards, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages.
When choosing the right surface finish, it is essential to consider factors such as cost, environmental impact, reworkability, and performance requirements for your specific application.
The decision between ENIG and HASL will depend on your project’s unique needs and constraints.
By understanding the features and characteristics of each surface finish, you can make an informed decision that will ensure the success of your project.