High End PCB Manufacturer PCB Layout
Printed circuit boards are special plates made of dielectric material on which electronic circuits are placed. This board allows various electrical and mechanical component circuits to be connected to ensure that all components function correctly. The parts of the conductive pattern are interconnected in accordance with the schematic diagram.
The Main Types and Principle of Manufacturing High End PCB Manufacturer Boards
The most common material in the production of high end pcb manufacturer is a dielectric plate – usually glass fiber or getinax is used for this. The base can be metal with a dielectric coating – such boards are made of anodized aluminum. A layer of foil is applied to the dielectric in the form of tracks. This option is more often used in power electrical installations; it provides the most efficient heat dissipation.
Manufacturing of printed circuit boards is carried out in several ways:
- Single sided boards. This option is the simplest – the conductors are located on one surface and connected by tracks. They are made from copper-based foil. The result is a conductive pattern on the product that connects the components.
- Double-sided. Their scheme is much more complicated, since the tracks run on both sides, and through holes are made on the board material itself for mounting on devices.
- Multi-layer boards of increased complexity. Several layers of a conductive pattern are formed on them: they are located not only on both sides, but also in the inner layers. This makes it possible to place a large number of components with a complex connection scheme.
Multilayer printed circuit boards can have up to 24 or more layers – this allows you to create control elements and controllers of the most complex devices.
High end pcb manufacturer assembles electronic components into a single circuit using soldering – as a result of this process, a strong permanent connection is formed. Parts and solder are heated to a certain temperature: the solder melts and is applied to the connected elements and they are firmly attached to each other, forming an electrically conductive circuit. In high-volume production, pin mounting is actively used, when component leads are drawn through the holes and soldered to the contact pads of the board.
Which Manufacturing Materials High end PCB Manufacturer Use?
Basically, the boards are made of FR4 fiberglass; its operating temperature range is from -50 to +110 degrees Celsius. The dielectric constant of such a material can range from 3.8 to 4.5 – it depends on the manufacturer’s brand and some other factors. If the product is to be used in high heating conditions, then the high-temperature textolite FR4 High Tg can become the basis for it.
If high end pcb manufacturer designs board for a very high temperature level, then the basis for its manufacture must be made of polyimide. This material has increased electrical strength. Such boards are often used for the production of electronics, military equipment, installations using hydraulic accumulators, etc.
If the board operates with ultra-high frequency (microwave) circuits over 2 GHz, then special microwave materials are used for its production. They are produced by such manufacturers as Rogers, Alron and others. When choosing a material, the characteristic impedance, hole structure, cost, and other parameters are also taken into account.
Types of PCB Pad Coating
The most common type of coating remains tin-lead. This solder is flattened with hot air and creates an optimal pad. However, its use is limited by the special RoHS directive, which is already widespread in European countries. Lead is a toxic substance, so its use must be limited in accordance with modern environmental standards. This is forcing manufacturers to create better coatings for printed circuit boards that are free of toxic substances. However, the directive has not yet been adopted in Russia, and tin-lead solder is still widely used.
To create a more even surface while maintaining good solderability, immersion tin is used. Its only drawback is its short service life for soldering.
If the pins of the connectors are constantly rubbed when using the printed circuit board, then they are covered with a strong layer of gold to protect them. The bottom layer is made of nickel to prevent diffusion of the gold layer.
Additional Protective Coatings from Hhigh end PCB Manufacturer
The surfaces not used for soldering are equipped with special coatings. High end pcb manufacturer does it to increase the service life:
- Solder mask – a special layer that prevents dirt from getting on the conductors and protects them from short circuits.
- Marking – signs that are applied to the surface by silk-screen printing or otherwise. The marking contains information about the manufacturer of the board, its individual components, or other useful information.
- Peelable Mask – Made from a rubbery substance and applied to the back of the board to protect the desired areas from soldering. It can be easily removed if necessary.
- Carbon Fiber Contact Plating – This is used on PCBs in keyboards to provide signal sensing. It is resistant to oxidation and therefore suitable for long-term use.
- Resistive graphite elements – can be used as additional resistors, but they have low accuracy.
- Silver contact jumpers are used as additional conductors if there is not enough space on the board itself for drawing traces.
Types of Housings for Electronic Components of the Board
Most PCBs use components with three main types of packages:
- Thru-Hole – Enclosures used in through-hole installations. The leads are routed through the mounting holes. Components of this type are installed on one side and soldered on the opposite;
- SMD / SMT – This type of enclosure is suitable for surface mount applications. Elements can be mounted on both sides of the PCB and are soldered on only one side. Their important advantage is in their more compact size – they can be used to assemble small boards with high circuit complexity;
- BGA is an abbreviation that literally means “ball array”. The housing is equipped with multiple leads in the form of miniature solder balls. They are placed on a contact pad and exposed to high temperatures, causing the balls to melt and surface tension to hold the component where it should be. BGA components provide the greatest contact and, due to their small size, minimize signal interference. As a result, the processing speed increases and the thermal contact improve.
High end pcb manufacturer supplies modern equipment with complex electrical circuits. Modern measuring devices work on the basis of receiving and processing digital signals, ensuring high measurement accuracy. Multilayer printed circuit boards provide extensive information processing capabilities.
Types of Printed Circuit Boards
A wide range of printed circuit boards is the main focus of PCBMAY. The company High end pcb manufacturer produces printed circuit boards for various fields of activity. For example, you can order the production of printed circuit boards of the following types:
- One-sided.Ease of manufacture and low cost are the main advantages of such printed circuit boards. They are usually used for inexpensive or simple equipment, where heavy loads are not provided;
- Double-sided.The dielectric plate has conductive patterns on both sides. This increases the area of the working surface and allows you to connect more elements, increasing the functionality of the product. Most often, enterprises decide to order a printed circuit board of this type for the production of more complex electronic products;
Multilayer.Technically more complex printed circuit boards, because this type of board assumes internal layers. Such printed circuit boards are more often used in products where there are restrictions on the size of the final product.
The company’s products can be manufactured from various materials. For example, high-frequency laminates made of ceramics, hydrocarbonate and polytetrafluoroethylene are used for the manufacture of microwave-type printed circuit boards. These printed circuit boards are used in equipment that operates in a high temperature environment. The metal has good thermal conductivity, which provides protection against overheating and increases service life.
The company provides customers with favorable terms for the supply of boards, while maintaining high quality.
You can contact our managers to clarify all the details.
Product Quality Control
At the request of the customer, we carry out electrical testing of the produced printed circuit boards in one of two ways:
- Using universal tester equipment (Flightprobe);
- Using an adapter designed for a specific PCB model.
Production of Boards of Different Types
The design of the printed circuit board plays an important role, since the main characteristics of the operation of the entire device as a whole depend on it. Today, the production of single-sided and double-sided boards is most often ordered, which have sufficient capabilities and at the same time are much cheaper than other analogues:
- On single-sided boards, the pattern is on one side;
- On both sides – on both sides.
Multilayer products are also available. They consist of two or more alternating layers of insulating material, supplemented with conductive patterns and have the necessary connections. The creation of such products is carried out from materials of domestic and foreign production, capable of withstanding the effects of temperatures from -50 to +110 ° C. Basically, in production, foil-clad fiberglass of different thicknesses is used, which has:
- Excellent heat resistance;
- Resistance to electrochemical corrosion;
- Blocking the sun’s rays;
- Low temperature coefficient of expansion.
Manufacturing of Multilayer Boards
By gluing several single-sided and double-sided boards, multi-layer products can be obtained. They are widely used in electronics. This technology is more complex, since it requires accurate marking and strict adherence to the entire technological regime. It includes many stages, from obtaining blanks and making a protective pattern of the circuit, ending with pressing the layers and processing the finished product by mechanical methods.
Separately, it should be said about flexible printed circuit boards. They are layers of dielectric that are made up of an electrically conductive circuit. Due to their flexibility, such products are used in the most difficult-to-reach places. Flexible boards are used as connectors for different parts of electronic systems, as well as when replacing cable connections.
From high end pcb manufacturer, you can order the production of boards for the electronics of railway transport. Depending on the type of machines, products with different markings will be created here. Solder paste is applied on a special printer. All processes are automated and programmed, therefore, high quality and accuracy of finished products are guaranteed. Microcircuits, brands, radio components are already mounted on finished boards.
A special printer is used to apply solder paste to the printed circuit board. Thanks to the automation and programming of the process, high quality and precision of finished printed circuit boards is achieved.
After the formation and receipt of a conductive pattern on a sheet of textolite or other similar material, it is cut to size into individual printed circuit boards.
Ready-made blanks of printed circuit boards for further installation of radio components, microcircuits, stamps, etc. on them.
Professional manual assembly of printed circuit boards by highly skilled workers, using special equipment for soldering and forming leads
With the development of the electronic industry, the requirements for the manufacturers of the element base are becoming more complex and stricter. Our company provides services for the manufacture of printed circuit boards to order in St. Petersburg of any complexity. We manufacture boards using our own production facilities with innovative and modern equipment.
Printed Circuit Boards – the Basis of the Element Base of Electronic Devices
Printed circuit boards for electronic devices are plates made of dielectric materials, of various shapes and geometries, on which conductive circuits are integrated. Manufacturing of printed circuit boards is the creation of an extensive list of products, which can be divided into the following types according to the number of layers with a conductive pattern.
- Single-sided boards without plated holes are products on which the conductive circuit is applied to only one side.
- Double-sided boards – the pattern is applied to both sides, the holes can be either metallized or non-metallized.
- Multilayer boards.
In the production process, you have to go through many stages.
- First, a PCB template is made.
- On the basis of the template, blanks are produced.
- Mounting holes are created.
- Surface preparation and metallization are in progress.
- A protective relief is applied.
- Etching is performed.
- The board is processed along the contour.
Then the test and control procedures follow, if necessary, the detected faults are eliminated. In the process of control, 100% accurate methods of electrical and optical control are used, tests are carried out. Our company manufactures boards with a minimum gap between conductors and a minimum copper layer thickness.
Our company is ready to provide a full range of services related to the production of the element base of your electronic products. This also implies the process of mounting printed circuit boards – applying electronic components to them, including by hand soldering. The use of modern equipment makes it possible to accept orders for the production of printed circuit boards in any quantity at an affordable price. We are ready to take on the production of mass-produced orders and for the production of single items.